Thursday, October 25, 2012

Animal Regulation in the Bible

I thought it might be helpful and interesting to follow-up the dicussion on permits for commerical fish stocking with the following list of Animal Regulation Scriptures.

Which scriptures give the state permission to regulate fish permits?

If Jesus is King of Kings, which laws should the civil government be using?

Is the law making place of the legislature Biblical?

Would it be possible to use Biblical laws in modern society with judges who determined who violated a law, like in Moses day?
I am thinking that our theological presuppositions are either:

(a)The state can do anything that the Bible doesn't say it can't do, or
(b) the state can only do what the Bible gives the state permission to do.

Which do you believe and why?

Statement (b) is exactly a restatement of the regulative principle of worship based on the Second Commandment...which shows that we are limited to worship God to the ways that He prescribes.

It is fascinating how our theology plays out so thoroughly into our political viewpoints and thereby has created the culture we have today!

A Handbook of Bible Law - Animal regulations

Copyright 1991 by Charles A. Weisman. 2nd Edition: Aug., 1992; 3rd Edition: Dec., 1994

Animal regulations

Comments: The majority of laws in the Bible dealing with animals (other than those surrounding sacrifices which are no longer relevant or applicable to us) involve property rights, owner responsibility and restitution. In the Bible animals are made reference to by the terms "creature," "living thing," "cattle," "beast," and "creeping thing."
The Bible says that God put animals on earth for man to make use of "into your hand are they delivered" (Gen. 9:2). In biblical times animals were used for food, to do work with, as a source of clothing, as money for trading or buying, and even as pets, all of which have changed little since biblical times. So important were animals that the number owned was a measure of one's wealth and social status. 'And Abram was very rich in cattle.. . . "" (Gen. 13:2).
"The rich man had exceedingly many flocks and herds. But the poor man had nothing, except one little ewe lamb (2 Sam. 12:2-3).

Just as today the owner of an animal was responsible for what his animal did to other persons or their property. In fact, if an animal had previous incidents of aggressiveness towards persons, and its owner has been warned about it but fails to take precautions to confine the animal, he is to be regarded as a murdered and put to death if that animal kills someone (Exod. 21:29).

7A - Animals Used For Labor

  1. You are not to work animals on the Sabbath. Exod. 20:10; Exod. 23:12; Deut 5:14.
  2. You are not to have two different kinds of animals work together; You shall not plow with an ox and an ass together. Deut 22:10.
  3. You shall not muzzle the mouth of the ox that is being used for work. Deut 25:4; 1 Cor. 9:9; 1 Tim. 5:18.

7B - Damage and Injury Done by Animals

  1. If an animal kills a person the animal is to be put to death. Exod. 21:28-29.
  2. If an animal is proven to be aggressive, and its owner has been warned, yet he does not confine it, and it kills a man or woman, then both the animal and the owner are to be put to death. If there is a ransom of money demanded of the owner, it can be paid for the redemption of his life. Exod. 21:29-31.
  3. If an animal shall gore a servant, the owner shall give the servant's master a set amount of money and the animal is to be killed. Exod. 21:32.
  4. If a man's animal eats the crop of another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field. Exod. 22:5.
  5. If one man's animal kills another's animal, then the live animal shall be sold and the money (and the dead animal if it be cattle) shall be divided between them. Exod. 21:35.
  6. If an animal which is known to be aggressive kills another animal yet its owner had not confined him, then he shall pay for the animal killed but can keep the dead animal. Exod. 21:36.

7C - Animals Owned by Others

  1. Stolen animals are to be repaid to the owner 4 or 5 times. Exod. 22:1.
  2. Stray animals belonging to your brethren are be brought back to the owner. If the owner is unknown, then you are to keep the animal until the owner comes looking for it and then return it to him. Deut. 22:1-3.
  3. If you encounter an animal of your enemy going astray, you shall bring it back to him. Exod. 23:4.
  4. If a pit is opened or dug and left uncovered, and an animal falls into it, the owner of the pit shall pay the owner of the animal but he can keep the dead animal. Exod. 21:33-34.
  5. If you see an animal of one that hates you lying helpless under its load, you shall release the animal. Exod. 23:5.
  6. You shall not see your brother's ass or ox fall down by the way, and hide yourself from them: you shall surely help him to lift them up again. Deut. 22:4.
  7. Whoever kills another's animal shall make it good, animal for animal. Lev. 24:18, 21.

7D - Animals Borrowed or in Another's Care

  1. If a man gives his neighbor his animal to keep for him and it dies or runs away, then an oath before the LORD shall be made between them, that he has not laid his hands on his neighbor's animal. He is not required to pay for it. Exod. 22:10-11.
  2. If a borrowed animal is stolen, the keeper shall make restitution to the owner of the animal. Exod. 22:12.
  3. If a borrowed animal is torn in pieces, the remains shall be brought as evidence, and no restitution shall be made. Exod. 22:13.
  4. If a man borrows any animal, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, he shall make full restitution to the owner. But if the owner is with it, no restitution is to be made. Exod. 22:14-15.

    7E - General Care of Animals

    1. You are not to breed cattle with a diverse kind (no hybrid cattle, livestock or pets). Lev. 19:19.
    2. Should have regard for the life of your animals. Prov. 12:10.
    3. Do not separate a newly born ox or sheep or a goat from its mother for the first seven days. Lev. 22:27.
    4. The eggs or young can be taken from a bird's nest but not along with the mother. Deut. 22:6-7.
    5. Know well the condition of your flocks, and pay attention to your herds. Prov. 27:23.

    Tuesday, October 23, 2012

    Fish Stocking Permits: Biblical or Not?

    In North Dakota, the civil government requires a transport and stocking permit for a person to raise fish, even in a 150 gallon aquaponics system.

    Is this a proper role for civil government according to the Bible?  Which Scriptures support your claim.

    Below is a summary of the role of civil government that may be helpful in your analysis. This is the Civil Magistrate Chapter of the original Westminster Confession of Faith written in about 1646. This is what the founding father of America believed about the role of civil government.

    What should Christians do if Arizona requires a transport and stocking permit for the aquaponics system at Legacy High School. Permitting typically involve state inspection, costs, time, paperwork, and the ability of the state to make your aquaponics system illegal for any reason they desire.

    In this situation is the state asking Christians to disobey God? Are they asking something that is  against God's Word or not?   Is asking something against God's Word asking Christians to disobey God?

    How would it be obeying or disobeying God to take the permit? What is your Scripture reference? What would your teachers, parents and or pastors say about this issue?

    Chapter XXIII Of the Civil Magistrate
    I. God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil magistrates, to be, under Him, over the people, for His own glory, and the public good: and, to this end, has armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil doers.
    II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto: in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth; so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war, upon just and necessary occasion.
    III. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven: yet he has authority, and it is his duty, to take order that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administrated, and observed. For the better effecting whereof, he has power to call synods, to be present at them and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God
    IV. It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute or other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience' sake. Infidelity, or difference in religion, does not make void the magistrates' just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to them: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted, much less has the Pope any power and jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and, least of all, to deprive them of their dominions, or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretence whatsoever.
    Scripture References Supporting the Above Summary
    ROM 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. 3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: 4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 1PE 2:13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; 14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.
    PRO 8:15 By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. 16 By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth. ROM 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. 4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.
    PSA 2:10 Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. 12 Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. 1TI 2:2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. PSA 82:3 Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy. 4 Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked. 2SA 23:3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. 1PE 2:13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme.
    LUK 3:14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages. ROM 13:4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. MAT 8:9 For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. 10 When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. ACT 10:1 There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band, 2 A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway. REV 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful. 16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
    2CH 26:18 And they withstood Uzziah the king, and said unto him, It appertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the Lord, but to the priests the sons of Aaron, that are consecrated to burn incense: go out of the sanctuary; for thou hast trespassed; neither shall it be for thine honour from the Lord God. MAT 18:17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. MAT 16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 1CO 12:28 And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. 29 Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles? EPH 4:11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ. 1CO 4:1 Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. 2 Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful. ROM 10:15 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things! HEB 5:4 And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.
    ISA 49:23 And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me. PSA 122:9 Because of the house of the Lord our God I will seek thy good. EZR 7:23 Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the God of heaven: for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons? 25 And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not. 26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment. 27 Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, which hath put such a thing as this in the king's heart, to beautify the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem: 28 And hath extended mercy unto me before the king, and his counsellers, and before all the king's mighty princes. And I was strengthened as the hand of the Lord my God was upon me, and I gathered together out of Israel chief men to go up with me. LEV 24:16 And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the Lord, shall be put to death. DEU 13:5 And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the Lord thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee. 6 If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers. 12 If thou shalt hear say in one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, saying, etc. 2KI 18:4 He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made: for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it Nehushtan. (1CH 13:1-8; 2KI 24:1-25) 2CH 34:33 And Josiah took away all the abominations out of all the countries that pertained to the children of Israel, and made all that were present in Israel to serve, even to serve the Lord their God. And all his days they departed not from following the Lord, the God of their fathers. 2CH 15:12 And they entered into a covenant to seek the Lord God of their fathers with all their heart and with all their soul; 13 That whosoever would not seek the Lord God of Israel should be put to death, whether small or great, whether man or woman.
    2CH 19:8 Moreover in Jerusalem did Jehoshaphat set of the Levites, and of the priests, and of the chief of the fathers of Israel, for the judgment of the Lord, and for controversies, when they returned to Jerusalem. 9 And he charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of the Lord, faithfully, and with a perfect heart. 10 And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in their cities, between blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments, ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the Lord, and so wrath come upon you, and upon your brethren: this do, and ye shall not trespass. 11 And, behold, Amariah the chief priest is over you in all matters of the Lord; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king's matters: also the Levites shall be officers before you. Deal courageously, and the Lord shall be with the good. (2CH 29-30) MAT 2:4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet.
    1TI 2:1 I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; 2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
    1PE 2:17 Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.
    ROM 13:6 For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. 7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
    ROM 13:5 Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. TIT 3:1 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.
    1PE 2:13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; 14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well. 16 As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God.
    ROM 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 1KI 2:35 And the king put Benaiah the son of Jehoiada in his room over the host: and Zadok the priest did the king put in the room of Abiathar. ACT 25:9 But Festus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure, answered Paul, and said, Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before me? 10 Then said Paul, I stand at Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest. 11 For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar. 2PE 2:1 But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. 10 But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, selfwilled, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities. 11 Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord. JUD 8 Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. JUD 9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee. 10 But these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves. 11 Woe unto them! for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, and perished in the gainsaying of Core.
    2TH 2:4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. REV 13:15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. 16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: 17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Monday, October 8, 2012

    Aquaponic Food Production for Long Term Survival

    This article does a nice job sumarizing several basic points worth knowing about aquaponics.  It is also helpful to us as we start-up a small scale system, since it is designed for survival situations. We are focused on commerical aquaponics and so need to do many things different, but see if you can gleen a few helpful ideas like I did..

    Here is the link, please read the whole article, I am thinking that a future quiz will cover some of its points:

    Here is a quote:

    "A working "biofilter" is the key ingredient to a good aquaponics system, as the bacteria in the biofilter keeps the fish water clean, and changes ammonia into nitrogen for the plants. The bacteria need to reside in a wet environment that has plenty of oxygen, and little or no light. A gravel bed that is alternately flooded and drained, is perfect for this type of bacteria to thrive in. Other aquaponic solutions, such as Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and Deep Water Raft Technique, use a large amount of netting submerged in the water to give a place for the bacteria to reside. We chose a grow-bed filled with 1 foot of gravel as our biofilter, as it is simpler to build.

    The bacteria in the gravel biofilter changes the ammonia into nitrogen in two steps. The first step is performed by the Nitrosomonas bacteria, which changes the total fish ammonia (NH3 and NH4+) into nitrite (NO2). The next process is accomplished by the Nitrobacter bacteria that changes the nitrite (NO2) into nitrate (NO3), which the plants use as fertilizer. The ammonia and nitrites are very toxic to fish, while the nitrates are fairly harmless, so it is important to monitor the bacteria by testing the water quality using the inexpensive aquarium test strips sold at any pet store. As long as you have a large amount of gravel or other media for the bacteria to colonize, your water quality won't be an issue. If you are using sterile media, you won't have any bacteria to start with, and you will need to purchase the bacteria from an aquarium shop or from Fritz-Zyme. We used gravel from a creek, as the Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter bacteria is always abundant in river gravel. Since these two types of bacteria work in tandem and do not reproduce quickly, it may take anywhere from 2 to 4 weeks to ramp up the bacteria to full production. So, it may important not to add a large number of fish at the same time unless you already have a good supply of bacteria at work in your system.   Our first step in construction of our Aquaponic system was to lay an 8' x 8' "carpet" of around 40 concrete blocks for the foundation of the fish tank. It took a long time to get the blocks level using a spirit level and a long 2x4, but this is probably the most crucial part of the construction. The next step was to build the fish tank out of wood, that would ultimately be fitted with a rubber liner. I created a square box out of 2x12 lumber standing on their edges, that was a little less than 8' x 8' and held together by wood screws. I designed it so that the 2x12's had an extra 3.5" overlap or "flap" on each of the corners, so I could drill holes and put carriage bolts through the 4x4 posts and 2x12 sides from two different directions on each of the outside corners. This holds the wood seams together. It is very important to "overbuild" the tank seams on a wooden fish tank with carriage bolts, wood screws, etc. as the water pressure is very great. Once I had my square box built, I made sure it was perfectly "square" by measuring the distances diagonally across from each corner. When these two distances were the same, I knew it was square. Then I covered what was to be the bottom of the tank with 8' long 2x4s, nailed into the 2x12s with a 2" gap between each 2x4. When I turned the 8'x8' box over and placed it on the concrete block foundation, the gaps between the 2x4s allowed me to put shims between the blocks and the 2x4s, so that each concrete block was helping to evenly support the 2x4s that held up the fish tank. "